Annex A- Group research proposal

Link to Google Doc 2016_ISS_Group Project Proposals SCI Group J:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ddQpzBZRYZmbmiHPCqquKfWTqZXBu2RFd6R6guip-lI/edit



 Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE


INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE


Names: Aldon, Russell


Class: S2-02


Group Reference: J  


A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum


[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography


X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals


[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene 


[    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  


  1. Type & Category


Type of research:         3         (Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category  –  _____________10________ (Write down one number from 7 to 20)


Sub-category –  ___________D&E_______ (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)


Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:


To find out if the temperature of where the iron is kept will affect the rate of rust in iron and with that we can find out if we can also reduce rust due to temperature




C.    Write down your research title:


Investigation of various temperatures affecting the rate of rusting of iron.


D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed 



We wanted to find out if the temperature affects the amount rust produced
on an iron nail.


(b) Independent variable


  • The independent variable is time.


(c) Dependent variable


  • The dependent variable is the temperature.


(d) Controlled variables


  • The type of beakers
  • The amount of electricity being passed through the water
  • The amount of water in each beaker
  • The size of iron nails
      (e) Hypotheses



The temperature of the water will change the rate of rust.


Rust is formed when Water and Oxygen combine to form hydrated Iron (III) Oxide.
It can be shown in the following equation,


H2 O + O2+Fe       Fe(OH)3


  • Rusting is formed by the oxidisation of iron
  • Acid rain or salt will speed up the rate of rusting as it causes the water to become a better electrolyte.
  • Electricity will also Increase the rate of rust
  • Rusting is an oxidation reaction
  • Iron and steel rust when they come into contact with water and oxygen. Both water and oxygen are needed for rusting to occur.


For iron to become iron oxide, therefore, three things are required - iron, water, and oxygen. Here's what happens when the three get together. When a drop of water hits an iron object, two things begin to happen almost immediately. First, the water, a good electrolyte, combines with carbon dioxide in the air to form carbonic acid, and even better electrolyte. As the acid is formed and the iron dissolved, some of the water will begin to break down into its component pieces, hydrogen and oxygen.
The free oxygen and dissolved iron bond into iron oxide in a process that frees electrons. The electrons liberated from the anode portion of the iron flow to the cathode, which may be a piece of metal less electrically reactive than iron, or another point on the piece of iron itself. The chemical compounds found in liquids like acid rain, sea water, and salt-loaded spray from Snowbelt roads make them better electrolytes than pure water, allowing their presence to speed the process of rusting on iron and other forms of corrosion on other metals.” - cited from How Stuff Works, http://science.howstuffworks.com/question445.htm
E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


(a) Equipment list:
 


Permanent Issue items
SN
Description (Arduinos, Annikken Andee etc)
Quantity
Do you need them?  
Issue by
1




2




3




4






Temporary Loan items (Only for equipment)
SN
Description
Quantity
Do you need them?  
Issue by
1
Beakers
3
yes
29th Jan
2
wires
6
yes
29 Jan
3
bunsen burner
1
yes
29 Jan
4
nails
3
yes
29 Jan
5
Thermometer
1
yes
29 Jan
6
Large containers(bigger than beaker)
3
Yes
29th Jan
7


























Expendable items (for items that cannot be recycled)
SN
Description
Quantity
Do you need them?  
Issue by
1
Metal plates
6
yes
29th Jan
2
batteries
9
yes
29th Jan
3
Tape

yes
29th Jan
4





(b) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection


  • Prepare 3 beakers
  • Put 50 ml of water and a iron nail in each of them
  • of them to 33˚c (room temperature)*
  • Heat the second to 50˚c*
  • Leave the third in an air-conditioned room at 25˚c*
  • Check how much the rust has increased every day at a set time for 2 weeks.
  • Make a graph from the results.
  • place two metal plates opposite each other in each beaker
  • Attach the Alligator clip to each of them
  • Attach the wires to three batteries
*leave it at said temperature throughout the entire 2 weeks


(c) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


Risk
Assessment
Management
Oxygen is an oxidising agent and will cause a fire
Medium
Students must make sure that bunsen burners should not be kept close to each other
Hydrochloric acid is an acid that might be an irritant
Low
Use gloves
As experiments involve heating, there is a risk of scalding the hand accidently.
Medium
Use gloves or tongs when carrying out the experiment
As the experiment involves glassware, there is a risk of breakage and cutting of the hands.
Low
Wear gloves when carrying out the experiment. In case of breakage, the cut to the hands will be minimized.
A fire might be started as we are working with the Bunsen Burner.
Medium
Make sure there are no gas leaks.


(d) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypothesis


  1. Weigh the nails using an electronic scale
  2. Plot the results in a table
  3. Compare the results using a histogram(time against alteration to water/ gas/ temperature)
  4. Plot a histogram(X axis for temperature)(Y axis for time)
eg.
Image result for histogram example


F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.


(a) Books


Tiemann, Julius H. (1890) THE PRESERVATION OF Iron Structures FROM RUST. M NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF BAR AND CAST IRON, AND THEIR BEHAVIOR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE ATMOSPHERE, MOISTURE, ACIDS, ETC. Retrieved from: http://communitybooks.worldlibrary.net.proxy.lib.sg/members/oca/p/preservationofir00tiem.pdf


(b) Journals


(c) Websites
physical chemistry
http://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/40589/voltaic-cell-why-does-the-rate-of-rusting-increase-when-nacl-is-added

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